Tuesday, May 19, 2020

All About the Dugong

Dugongs join manatees in the order Sirenia, the group of animals that, some say, inspired tales of mermaids. With their grayish-brown skin and whiskered face, dugongs resemble manatees, but are found on the other side of the world. Description Dugongs grow to lengths of 8 to 10 feet and weights of up to 1,100 pounds. Dugongs are gray or brown in coloration and have a whale-like tail with two flukes. They have a rounded, whiskered snout and two forelimbs. Classification Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: MammaliaOrder: SireniaFamily: DugongidaeGenus: DugongSpecies: dugon Habitat and Distribution Dugongs live in warm, coastal waters from East Africa to Australia. Feeding Dugongs are primarily herbivores, eating seagrasses and algae. Crabs have also been found in the stomachs of some dugongs. Dugongs have tough pads on their lower lip to help them grab vegetation, and 10 to 14 teeth. Reproduction The dugongs breeding season occurs throughout the year, although dugongs will delay breeding if they do not get enough to eat. Once a female becomes pregnant, her gestation period is about 1 year. After that time, she usually gives birth to one calf, which is 3 to 4 feet long. Calves nurse for about 18 months. The lifespan of the dugong is estimated at 70 years. Conservation The dugong is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. They are hunted for their meat, oil, skin, bones, and teeth. They are also threatened by entanglement in fishing gear and coastal pollution. Dugong population sizes are not well known. Since dugongs are long-lived animals with a low reproduction rate, according to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), even a slight reduction in adult survivorship as a result of habitat loss, disease, hunting or incidental drowning in nets, can result in a chronic decline. Sources Fox, D. 1999. Dugong dugon (On-line). Animal Diversity Web. Accessed November 10, 2009.Marsh, H. 2002. Dugong: Status Reports and Action Plans for Countries and Territories. (Online). United Nations Environment Programme. Accessed November 10, 2009.Marsh, H. 2008. Dugong dugon. (Online). IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. Accessed November 10, 2009.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Chaucer’s Placement and Description of the Manciple and...

On Chaucer’s Placement and Description of the Manciple and the Reeve in the General Prologue nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In the general prologue of Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales, the manciple and the reeve are described one after the other. Given the proximity of characters such as the prioress, the friar and the monk to each other, while the parson is hundred of lines away, Chaucer clearly grouped characters not only by social standing, but by character and attitude as well. This is shown in Chaucer’s placement of the manciple and the reeve, as these two characters have similar occupations, social standing, though these are contrasted through their urban and rural viewpoints. However, each has similar attitudes towards their†¦show more content†¦The manciple lives and works in London, a business agent who deals not only with his clients, an enclave of lawyers, but also with a variety of food providers on a daily basis. His is an urban lifestyle. The reeve, on the other hand, encounters a fairly fixed group of people every day. However, these lifestyle d ifferences seem to have little effect on Chaucer’s portrayal of the similarities between the two characters. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The manciple and the reeve perform similar duties. Each cares for the needs of another of higher social status more adeptly than their superiors could do for themselves. Their most basic similarity, and the one which Chaucer highlights in most detail, is the excellence in which they perform their labors. They are each hard-working, effective, and, when compared to most of the other pilgrims on their way to Canterbury, morally sound as well. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; The manciple had â€Å"maistres†¦ mo than thries ten / that were of lawe experte and curious†¦/ and yit this Manciple sette hir alle cappe! (578-9, 589)† According to Chaucer, the manciple was more skilled at his duties than even the lawyers he worked for, who were to â€Å"worthy to be stewards of rente and lond / of any lord that is in Engelonde (583-4).† nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The reeve is charged with controlling much more than his lord’s foodstuffs. Indeed, â€Å"His lordes sheepe, his neet, and his dayerye, his swin, his hors and his pultrye was hoolly in

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Men Of The 1824 Election - 1177 Words

The Men of the 1824 Election The political climate of 1824 was turbulent, a dynamic and would alter the history of the United States of America for the foreseeable future. â€Å"The 1824 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION marked the final collapse of the Republican-Federalist political framework. For the first time no candidate ran as a Federalist, while five significant candidates competed as Democratic-Republicans.† (ushistory.org) James Monroe was the President of the United States of America (P.O.T.U.S) at the time and was dealing with other European Countries Claiming land in the area of what is now the Continental United States of America; at the same time the Native Americans and the topic of slavery where a hot bed for trouble. President Monroe needed to put a stop to the European over reach across the world. Monroe in 1823 formulated a declaration of principles on South America, known in later years as the Monroe Doctrine. Warning that the â€Å"American Continents where free an d independent are henceforth not to be considered for colonization by and European power. Any attempt would be regarded as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United states.† (Roark) Whether the leadership of the country knew it or not the country was changing and the election would be the corner stone of the type of Union it would become centuries later. Since the beginning of the newly independent Republic union there were two different political parties theShow MoreRelatedThe Election of 1928 for US President664 Words   |  3 PagesThe election of 1828 marked a major turning point in America political history. A new style of substance became the rule. New techniques of mass mobilization, such as campaign advertising, public speeches, and other kinds of political propaganda became essential to running a successful campaign. Three main factors contributed to the rise of a new kind of politics by the election of 1828, the contentious presidential elect ion of 1824, the expansion of the voting right and the American economic BoomRead MoreJeffersonian And Jacksonian Democracy1574 Words   |  7 Pagesa result of the War of 1812, Monroe spoke of his policies and beliefs and in 1817, peace, liberty, prosperity, and progress flourished throughout the nation (Garraty 200). The Era of Good Feelings came to an end because of the â€Å"corrupt bargain† in 1824. The transition from Jeffersonian to Jacksonian Democracy involved scandalous events that undermine the authority of the president and the government itself. Each Democracy had different views: politically, socially, economically and religiously.Read MoreThe Birth of Modern Politics1701 Words   |  7 Pagesthe book The Birth of Modern Politics Lynn Hudson Parsons claims that the 1828 election was momentous in the history of both political history, as well as our nation. Parsons not only discusses the behind the scenes of the first public election of 1828, but the pivotal e vents in Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams’ lives leading up to the election as well. Parsons succeeds in proving her thesis that the 1828 election was crucial to American politics as we know it today, as well as provoking evidenceRead MoreDefinition Of Deference On White Males1104 Words   |  5 Pagesthe 19th century? Only one state, New Jersey, had given unmarried women property holders the right to vote. This right did not continue into the 19th century because the state rescinded this right at the time it extended suffrage to all adult white men. JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY-EMERGENCE OF A NEW PARTY SYSTEM 1. What three factors contributed to the creation of a second party system? The three factors that contributed to the creation of a second party system was (1) the financial panic of 1819 and theRead MoreThe War Of North Carolina1089 Words   |  5 Pagesjob closer to home, as judge of Tennessee s superior court. In 1802 he challenged Governor John Sevier for election as major general in command of the state militia. Jackson s senior by more than twenty years, Sevier was a veteran of the Revolution and of many Indian campaigns, and the state s leading politician. Jackson beat him for the generalship, but the aftermath brought the two men to a showdown in the streets of Knoxville, followed by preparations for a duel. Jackson resigned his army commissionRead MoreThe War Of North Carolina1089 Words   |  5 Pagesjob closer to home, as judge of Tennessee s superior court. In 1802 he challenged Governor John Sevier for election as major general in command of the state militia. Jackson s senior by more than twenty years, Sevier was a veteran of the Revolution a nd of many Indian campaigns, and the state s leading politician. Jackson beat him for the generalship, but the aftermath brought the two men to a showdown in the streets of Knoxville, followed by preparations for a duel. Jackson resigned his army commissionRead MoreValidity And Reliability Of The Election Of 18241381 Words   |  6 Pagesheavily on theoretical data especially in relation to elections taking place in the nineteenth century. Because of this one might question the validity and reliability of the conclusions. The sources I used to reach those conclusions are qualitative and they aim to understand why the elections have turned out the way they ultimately did. Some numerical data exists for the 2000 election and I will utilize those figures in relation to that election to explore corruption. While the information will beRead MoreEssay on The Corrupt Bargain707 Words   |  3 PagesWhen Andrew Jackson was denied presidency in 1824 due to â€Å"the corrupt bargain† between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay, he was furious at the lack of democracy in the election system. He became determined to institute a new age of genuine democracy in America where the voice of the people wouldim being monarchal, Andrew Jackson was a very democratic president evidenced by his drive to give the people more representation and also his attempted transfer of power from the few to the many. Read MoreKey Terms Of The Party System1538 Words   |  7 PagesKey Terms Two Party System: A two party system is when in a government, two main political parties dominate the politics. In an election, one party is usually referred to as the majority party, where the other is the minority party. Kitchen Cabinet: Andrew Jackson’s Kitchen Cabinet was the unofficial group of advisors and friends that made up his cabinet. His real, official cabinet had many members that were personal rivals and fought all the time. Jackson stopped holding meetings with his cabinetRead MoreAndrew Jackson s The First President Of The United States Of America Essay996 Words   |  4 Pagesthat they didn t need his men. He refused to march them all the way back to Tennessee. Because of how strict he was, his troops began to say he was as tough and strong as hickory wood and so the name â€Å"Old Hickory† stuck. Andrew was a true friend to anyone but also a really bad man to mess with. The best example would be in politics beginning with the presidential election in 1824. People who supported Jackson usually referred to the election as the â€Å"Stolen Election.† While Jackson won by a great

Developmental Disabilities A Diverse Group Of Chronic...

School is tough for everyone, but for some it may be way tougher. Students with developmental disabilities face many challenges and have way less opportunities than students without them. My essay will study students with developmental disabilities, how they plan on exploring their everyday life and what they go through on a good and bad day. Developmental disabilities are a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments (Trends In The Prevalence Of Developmental Disabilities In U.S Children, 2015). There are many types of disabilities. For example: intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorders, Down syndrome, language and learning disorders, cerebral palsy, vision impairment, and hearing loss.†¦show more content†¦Last week, the Supreme Court issued a unanimous ruling on special education in public schools. â€Å"The case, Endrew F. v. Douglas County School District, dealt with a child whose Individualized Education Program had fa iled to help him progress academically despite his academic promise†. In accordance with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act also known as IDEA, IEPs must be â€Å"reasonably calculated to enable the child to achieve passing marks and advance from grade to grade.† The plaintiff’s IEP was found not to meet that standard. â€Å"The Court’s unanimous decision was a victory for special education advocates, especially because the Court proclaimed in its decision that public schools must offer an IEP reasonably calculated to enable a child to make progress appropriate in light of the child’s circumstances.† In other words, children with disabilities cannot receive a public school education that sets the bar so low that they are unreasonably deprived of meaningful instruction and personal development. (Kehrer, Trevor. Disabled students have right to education. Daily Trojan. N.p., 30 Mar. 2017. Web. 01 Apr. 2017.) Every child should have the right to an education regardless of the circumstance. School’s should not choose who gets to learn and who does not. â€Å"It has always been our students who lose out--it is always the kids with disabilities who are thrown under the bus first† (Meeting the Needs Of Students With Disabilities, 2017). People withShow MoreRelatedDevelopmental Disability : A Diverse Group Of Chronic Conditions2023 Words   |  9 PagesDevelopmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments. Developmental disabilities cause individuals living with them many difficulties in certain areas of life, especially in language, mobility, learning, self-help, and independent living. Developmental disabilities are usually identified early in childhood and will probably persist throughout the individual’s lifespan. This paper will identify the various aspects of how developmentalRead MoreManaged Care : A Complex Health Care System1469 Words   |  6 Pagesprofessionals organize in an interrelated system of people and facilities that communicate with one another and work together as a unit, commonly referred to as a network. This network coordinates and arranges health care services and benefits for a specific group of individuals, referred as enrollees, for the purpose of managing costs, quality, and access to health care. The Managed care program may be provided in a variety of settings, such as Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) and Preferred Provider OrganizationRead MoreSports and Fitness Center3819 Words   |  16 Pageshealth and functioning, people with disabilities are far less likely to engage in physically active lifestyles than are people without disabilities. Promoting moderate levels of physical activity among people with disabilities is an important goal for public health and public policy, as regular physical activity improves well-being and contributes to the prevention or delay of chronic disease. Little is known about why the majority of people with disabilities fail to integrate regular physical activityRead MoreSports and Fitness Center3804 Words   |  16 Pageshealth and functioning, people with disabilities are far less likely to engage in physically active lifestyles than are people without disabilities. Promoting moderate levels of physical activity among people with disabilities is an important goal for public health and public policy, as regular physical activity improves well-being and contributes to the prevention or delay of chronic disease. Little is known about why the majority of people with disabilities fail to integrate regular physical activityRead MoreEarly Life As A Social Determinant Of Health1403 Words   |  6 Pagesdeterminant is now described as the factors and environments that can influence development and lifelong healt h and wellbeing (Maggi et al., 2010). These factors interact with one another and include; social interactions, physical environment, living conditions, learning environments and socio-political context (Maggi et al., 2010). The societal influences on early life are determined by a variety of factors, ranging from access to survival necessities to income inequality (Maggi et al., 2010). DevelopingRead MoreInterdisciplinary Early Childhood Education Standard II Rationale for IECE KTS II789 Words   |  3 Pagesmaximize the opportunities for full inclusion. The second component is a research-based Three-Tiered approach for Addressing Challenging Behavior. It includes strategies to prevent challenging behavior, support social-emotional competencies, and address chronic patterns of misbehavior. I also included a reflective analysis that connects my thoughts and practices from my CMP with my two student teaching placements. Finally, I have selected several lesson plan analyses and observation forms that were observedRead MoreSocial Work : A Field Of Interest Essay1630 Words   |  7 Pagesan assistant social worker at an adult day health center, where I provide care and services for older adults who have d evelopmental disabilities. The majority of our participants are senior citizens. As an assistant social worker, I am required to complete all treatment plans, assessments, behavior logs, meal benefit forms, transportation services, and supportive counseling groups. I also take the participants on field trips to the community and expose them to resources available to them. I improveRead MoreChild Abuse And Neglect Within The United States2211 Words   |  9 Pagesin which they have been studied. Some studies suggest that neglect is the most prevalent type of child abuse in this country. Kaplan, Schene, DePanfilis, and Gilmore assert that neglect becomes chronic when its occurrence is not only ongoing, but seriously deprives a child of basic physical, developmental, and/or emotional needs by someone who cares for them. Whatever the definitions, all referenced texts in this essay agree that child abuse, its impacts, as well as its victims, merit considerationRead MoreChallenges Int egrating Students With Disabilities6780 Words   |  28 Pagesintegrating students with disabilities into the campus milieu, despite social, legislative, and technological policies designed to provide equal opportunities in higher education. Education about the rights and necessary supports to further inclusion of students with disabilities in campus programs and activities is key for student affairs practitioners. Over the past 25 years since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the number of students with disabilities enrolled in postsecondaryRead MoreEssay Psych Research3628 Words   |  15 Pagesconsists of children ages 2-18 with a variety of child mental health problems (e.g. ADHD, Anxiety, adjustment problems), there is the opportunity to provide specialized services to patients referred by Deaconess-Riley specialists (e.g. Autism, Developmental Delays, childhood diabetes, endocrinology etc.) Requirements: Ph. D. or Psy.D. in child psychology/pediatri c psychology including completion of an internship in an APA-accredited child psychology program and licensed (or license eligible) in the

Cristiano Ronaldo free essay sample

Forward/winger Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro, OIH, (born 5 February 1985), commonly known as Cristiano Ronaldo, is a Portuguese footballer who plays as a forward for Spanish La Liga club Real Madrid and who serves as captain of the Portuguese national team. Ronaldo became the most expensive footballer in history after moving from Manchester United to Real Madrid in a transfer worth ? 80 million (â‚ ¬93. 9 million/$131. 6 million). In addition, his contract with Real Madrid, in which he is paid â‚ ¬12 million per year, makes him one of the highest-paid footballers in the world, and his buyout clause is valued at â‚ ¬1 billion as per his contract. Ronaldo began his career as a youth player for Andorinha, where he played for two years, before moving to C. D. Nacional. In 1997, he made a move to Portuguese giants Sporting Clube de Portugal. Ronaldo caught the attention of Manchester United manager Alex Ferguson, who signed him for ? 12. 24 million (â‚ ¬15 million) in 2003. We will write a custom essay sample on Cristiano Ronaldo or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The following season, Ronaldo won his first club honour, the FA Cup. Ronaldo was the first player to win all four main PFA and FWA awards, doing so in 2007. In 2008, Ronaldo won the Ballon dOr. He placed second in the Ballon dOr in 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2012. He was awarded the European Golden Shoe in both 2008 and 2011. In 2008, he won three of the four main PFA and FWA trophies and was named the FIFA Pro Player of the Year, World Soccer Player of the Year, Onze dOr, and the FIFA World Player of the Year. In 2007 and 2008, Ronaldo was named FWA Footballer of the Year. Ronaldo was the inaugural winner of the FIFA Puskas Award in 2009. Ronaldo is considered one of the best footballers in the world. He holds numerous former and current scoring records, including records for most goals scored in a season for Real Madrid, most goals scored per minute in La Liga, first top European league player to reach 40 goals in a single season in two consecutive years, fastest Real Madrid player to reach one hundred league goals, and the first player ever to score against every team in a single season in La Liga. In January 2013, Cristiano Ronaldo scored his 300th club goal. Ronaldo is a Portuguese international and made his debut against Kazakhstan in August 2003. He has since participated in five major tournaments; UEFA Euro 2004, he 2006 FIFA World Cup, UEFA Euro 2008, the 2010 FIFA World Cup and UEFA Euro 2012. He scored his first international goal in the opening game of the Euro 2004 against Greece, in addition to helping Portugal reach the final. He took over the captaincy of the side in July 2008 and went on to captain Portugal to the semi-finals at the Euro 2012 and finished the compe tition as the joint best scorer with three goals. On 16 October 2012, Ronaldo won his 100th cap against Northern Ireland, making him the third highest capped player for Portugal and became the third youngest European to reach a century of international appearances. By Macauley Pugh Cristiano Ronaldo free essay sample Hello fellow students and teacher, this year I choose to do my speech on Cristiano Ronaldo. I choose to do my speech on Cristiano Ronaldo because he’s one of the most known footballers in the world. Cristiano Ronaldo is somehow considered a good player. He plays for also one of the most known club in the world. He was born on February 5th 1985 in Funchal Madeia, Portugal. When Ronaldo was eight he played for an amateur team, where his father was the kit man. In 1995 he signed with a local club and, after that he went on a three-day test with Sporting FC from 1997-2003. After that he got invited to a Manchester United trials and he got accepted to the team he was signed for 15 million euros. He played with Manchester for 6 years and then they traded him to real Madrid for some reason. He scored his first hat rick with Manchester united on January 12th 2008 6-0 win against New castle united. We will write a custom essay sample on Cristiano Ronaldo or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page On June 26th 2009 it was true that Ronaldo was going to real Madrid for 93. 9 million euros (141 million CND) He made his debut with Real Madrid on July 21st 2009. When Ronaldo was 15 he was diagnosed with heart arrhythmias which is when your heart pumps blood too fast usually it is harmless but Ronaldo’s case was worse enough to make him quit soccer. But he had an operation, which used a laser to cauterize the area of his heart, which was causing the heart arrhythmias. When the train accident In Spain happened Ronaldo didn’t just sit there he went and gave blood to victims of the crash. He doesn’t drink or smoke because oh his dad’s disease that killed him. He makes donations of 3 million euros to African countries like Uganda. A bible verse I included was Corinthians 13:7 Love bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things. I choose this verse because when his dad died he found out while he was playing against Greece in the 2004 world cup, which lead to Greece winning the world cup. Thank you for listening to my speech

Homeland Security free essay sample

Emergency Management is defined and mandated in different levels of government federal, state and local emergency management planning in security today faces many critical obstacles, such as an imbalance of focus between levels of security such as homeland security, FBI and the CIA and including private and public sector security and natural disaster management, the challenge of involving the public in preparedness planning, the lack of an effective partnership with the business community, cuts to funding, and questions surrounding the evolving organizational structure of the nation’s emergency management system. Such obstacles need to be overcome if emergency management activities are to be successful in the years ahead. This was a main issue before and after the attacks of September 2001 of the World Trade Center. Communication between all agencies was a key role of being prepared or to try and stop the attack. Homeland Security was created after the September 11, 2001, terror attack by the Bush Administration. We will write a custom essay sample on Homeland security or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The Department of Homeland Security works in conjunction with other federal departments such as the FBI and CIA. Homeland security policy is coordinated at the White House by the Homeland Security Counsel protecting the American people from terrorist threats and is the founding principles and hold highest priority to ensure homeland security and protection of our land, borders and citizens of the United States they also safeguard lawful trade and to convict, prosecute criminal and terrorist organizations. The attacks on the World Trade Center September 11, 2001 were the worst attack recorded on American soil killing over thousands of people by a terrorist organization. It takes the help from government and private and sectors such as federal, local, state, Department of Homeland Security, National Infrastructure Protection Plan to share analysis, alerts and threats with security related infrastructure. Government and private sectors to share information and to develop and establish protective actions before a disaster and to prevent a disaster most importantly to have a plan after the disaster. Critical infrastructure is the physical and cyber systems and assets so vital to the United States that their incapacity or destruction would have a debilitating impact on our physical or economic security or public health or safety. Instituting effective cooperation with international security partners, as well as high-priority cross-border protective programs such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).  The United States has developed a homeland Infrastructure threat risk analysis center to monitor everyday operations to make sure there is no threat. Federal agencies and our nations critical infrastructures such as power distribution, water supply, telecommunications, national defense, and emergency services rely on computerized information systems and electronic data to carry out their operations. The attacks on in New York affected my physically and emotionally because I was born and raised in Brooklyn, New York. I have been living in Kentucky since 2002 I had just got home from a 3rd shift job and went to lay down to sleep as always turned on Good Morning America and I fell asleep. My wife comes running downstairs and says wake up you have to look what’s going on in New York. I looked up at her and said it’s always something going on in New York no big deal, as we watched and I saw the first Tower hit then collapsed my heart sank and started to panic with fear. My sister worked only a few blocks down the street from the Towers and my mother works near the Pentagon. I wasn’t able to get in touch with my sister or mother for days and it was very heartbreaking to see the death and destruction of my home New York City. After the destruction I did find out that I did lose a few friends in the attacks. I wasn’t able to attend the memorial services but did send the family my condelescence and how sorry this happened and that I will miss my friends. This is one reason why I started back to college in the field of Criminal Justice and hoping reaching my degree will be able to contribute to the safety of our nation.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Environmental Pollution Simulation Review and Summary Essay Example

Environmental Pollution Simulation Review and Summary Paper How have environmental cycles changed? The capacity of ecosystems to provide benefits to humans, that is to provide ecosystem services, derives from environmental cycles of water, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus. These processes have in some cases been significantly modified by human activity. Changes have been more rapid in the second half of the 20th century than at any other time in recorded human history. Water cycle: Water withdrawals from rivers and lakes for irrigation, urban uses, and industrial applications doubled between 1 960 and 2000. Globally, humans use slightly more than 10% of the available renewable rosewater supply. However, in some regions such as North Africa, groundwater is withdrawn at a faster pace than it is renewed. Carbon cycle: In the last two and a half centuries, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by one third. Land ecosystems were a net source of carbon dioxide during the 1 9th and early 20th century and became a net carbon sink sometime around the middle of the last century. This reversal is due to increases in plant growth brought about by, for example, new forest management and agricultural practices. Nitrogen cycle: The total amount of trigger made available to organisms by human activities increased nine-fold between 1890 and 1 990, especially since 1950 because of the use of synthetic fertilizers. We will write a custom essay sample on Environmental Pollution Simulation Review and Summary specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Environmental Pollution Simulation Review and Summary specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Environmental Pollution Simulation Review and Summary specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Human activities are now responsible for as much nitrogen made available as all natural sources combined. Phosphorus cycle: The use of phosphorus fertilizers and the rate of phosphorus accumulation in agricultural soils nearly tripled between 1960 and 1 990, but has declined somewhat since. The flow of phosphorus into the oceans is now three times the natural flow. This study is focused on stream and landscape modifications and their effects n interaction between two predatory fish: brown trout and walleye. Both species in the Au Sable River system make extensive long-range movements. Brown trout in both the Mainstream and South Branch regularly moved 300-3,000 m each night during the summer. The extent of these movements was correlated to gradient. A third study in Mainstream between MIM and Alcoa Pond indicated that brown trout there showed much lower daily movements than in upstream reaches. Brown trout remained within 25 km of MIM Dam (out of a possible 50 km) and during summer remained relatively inactive. Their low rates of activity were correlated again to gradient, but also to presence of dams, which may have interfered with longer upstream movement. Walleye commonly used the same stretch of river as brown trout, as well as Alcoa pond on the downstream end. They regularly moved between the pond and river system, and passed over the lower 25 km. The upper reach of this study area was also heavily influenced by MIM Pond, which combined with local development to reduce large woody debris in the river, to increase water temperature, and to decrease temperature flux. Interactions in this dammed reach include predation by walleye on small rowan trout. This interaction may result in a lack of recruitment for brown trout between MIM and Alcoa Pond. Dams and impoundments on the Usable River increase walleye populations and interactions between walleye and brown trout, both to the detriment of the brown trout fishery. They also largely influence stream conditions and aquatic communities within the study reaches. Healthy ecosystems are a fundamental requirement for sustainable development and biodiversity conservation. Biological resources support human livelihoods, and make it possible to adapt to changing needs and environmental conditions. Many sectors of national economies also depend on the diversity of ecosystems and the functions and services they perform or protect. However, present trends of economic development, supported by inappropriate financial incentives, typically undervalue the ecosystem processes and services leading to the Overexploitation of valuable resources worldwide. As a result, species are becoming extinct at an alarming rate and the degradation of many ecosystems, biomass and habitats are leading to unprecedented social strife. Most of this has taken place in the developing world and in countries in transition The irreversibility of species extinction, ND the loss of genes and transformation of ecosystems through habitat degradation and overexploitation, all compromise options for present and future generations. It is therefore not possible to achieve a sustainable pattern of development without an effective strategy for ecosystem conservation and restoration. In recognition of this, development agencies need to integrate the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems in development actions, and to implement ecologically effe ctive, socially beneficial and economically viable ecosystem management practices in forests, wetlands, Savannah, arid and semi-arid rangelands, coastal and urine areas, mountains and agro-ecosystems. Traditional approaches to biodiversity conservation have largely focused on conserving species and establishing various forms of protected areas. However, biodiversity will not be conserved effectively in protected areas alone. The existing global network of protected areas is too small and, under prevailing social and economic conditions, any major expansion of this network seems unlikely. Many existing protected areas are under threat and, even where significant areas have been placed in protected areas, prevailing development patterns are creating barriers to species interaction and migration. The fragmentation of natural habitats has reduced the long-term viability of protected areas by making species more vulnerable to genetic erosion and to the impacts Of climate change. Thus, it has been recognized that, in addition to the establishment of protected areas, the future of much of the biosphere will depend on managing large areas using an integrated approach that recognizes human populations as having a keen interest in ensuring the continuing productivity of the ecosystems within which they live. Such an approach will have to meet local needs, maintain or restore ecosystem integrity and conserve biodiversity, simultaneously. Burch State Natural Area is a 728-acre natural area located in Germantown and Shelby County and is a part of a larger 6,000-acre county park (http://BMW. Selenographers. Org/esp./front). The natural area is a remnant of historic river meanders, bald cypress-water tupelo swamps, bottommost hardwood forests, and open river channel habitat. Unfortunately, much of this ecosystem has been significantly altered as a result of change in hydrology and the invasion of common privet, an invasive exotic pest plant. Luscious E. Burch Natural Area offers passive recreation activities such as day hiking, bird watching, and wildlife viewing within the metropolitan Memphis area. The natural area is a relatively large unfrequented forest that follows the banks of the Wolf River. It provides a refuge for forest dwelling birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians within an urbanize environment. Luscious E. Burch State Natural Area is a place where impacts on the resource can be interpreted and used as an educational tool to demonstrate the ecological effects of river centralization (straightening of the river channel) ND the impacts of invasive exotic pest plants. This outdoor living classroom is reacting to the change in environmental conditions since it was channeled. Common privet is native to Asia and has been widely used as hedges in urban landscaping. It has spread throughout the understood at Luscious E. Burch and has displaced many native species. Its impact is indicative of a problem facing all urban natural areas where adjacent landowners introduce invasive exotic pest plants. These landscaping practices create the seed source from which invasive exotics are distributed into natural areas by animals, wind, or water. Privet has invaded at Luscious E. Burch since drier site conditions were created by the centralization of the Wolf River. This invasion often occurs when a natural ecological disturbance regime has been altered or where the native landscape has been severely changed by development. Historically, the site was bottommost forest and a part of the Wolf River floodplain. This is evident by the occurrence of large cypress trees that are periodically encountered in relatively dry habitats. The state listed Copper iris (Iris vulva) is found in some existing low wet areas in the natural area.