Saturday, August 22, 2020

Divided Nations :: essays papers

Partitioned Nations Presentation In this article, I will talk about both the social factors in isolated countries experienced in the book â€Å"The Violence Within: Cultural and Political Opposition in Divided Nations†, altered by Kay B. Warren, and the techniques by which the supporters of this volume have gathered their information. The expansive cluster of contention and resistance experienced in the book are comprehensive to nations, for example, Northern Ireland, Israel, Egypt, Iran, South Africa, The Philippines, Guatemala, and Brazil. An assortment of creators have loaned their translations and encounters in and of these societies. The techniques for information assortment are wide running, including member perception, agent, and the records of experts in the equivalent or comparative fields. In the first place, I will portray the social components adding to distress in every one of these countries, and afterward the strategies by which the creators have gathered their examination material. Social Factors in Northern Ireland There is a long history of resistance to British imperialism in Northern Ireland and verifiably, expansionism makes an uncommon case which conveys trademark social impacts in the restriction. Imperialism, as Begona Aretxaga (223) brings up, â€Å"not just adventures and plunders, it likewise makes implications and shapes feelings.†. He further proposes that it is this making of implications and molding of feeling that separates expansionism from different types of political restriction. It is this impact which has laid the social system for the political insubordinations of the Irish. The major social vessel used to communicate contradict has generally been found as appetite strikes by political detainees. This training has an expansive social premise which can be found in Gaelic custom. The yearning strike has likewise increased noteworthy significance from the Catholic religion, drawing from the imagery in that. Though this kind of peaceful dissent has regularly been related with the point of reference set by Ghandi, here it has a rich verifiable foundation and was utilized to revitalize and bring together the Irish individuals. From the British point of view, what made expansionism satisfactory to the majority was a social mixture, portraying the Irish as savages. Their religion was considered agnostic. This strict uniqueness has pervaded as the years progressed, and been the fundamental wellspring of distinction as observed between these two elements. Next, I will report the social segments adding to the contention in Israel. Social Factors in Israel The fairly noteworthy social

A child Called It by Dave Pelzer Essay -- essays research papers

One Child’s Courage to Survive: â€Å" A Child Called It † Unique This is truly outstanding, yet saddest books that I have ever perused. There are such a significant number of terrible things out there that are going on to great individuals. We simply have no clue. No one can really tell what is happening in secret. I am so fortunate not to have encountered anything like this growing up. There is such a great amount of reality in this book, however I never realized that the truth was ever this horrendous. It carried me to an acknowledgment that I have never known. It is incredibly pitiful that something like this truly happened to such a sweet young man. Synopsis      A Child Called â€Å"It† is a story dependent on a genuine little boy’s tribulations with his moms stunning maltreatment. The initial segment of Dave's life was pure in his memory- - he says his family was "the Brady Bunch"- - a caring mother and father with whom he delighted in magnificent occasions and a glad outing to the Russian River. Everybody outwardly imagined that David’s family was great. Nobody in their neighborhood would have suspected anything wasn't right. All that changed when Dave was in first grade. For no known explanation, his mom singled him out from his kin and started manhandling him. The maltreatment started generally gently. At the point when he and his siblings accomplished something incorrectly, Dave was the one to get discipline - from the outset just expulsion to the edge of a room. At that point, his mom started going through her days sitting in front of the TV and dr inking lager. Effectively aggravated, she hollered at Dave for the smallest explanation, or in some cases for reasons unknown by any means. Before long, rather than causing him to go down to the storm cellar, Mrs. Pelzer crushed Dave's face against the mirror, at that point made him rehash, again and again, "I'm an awful kid! I'm a terrible boy!" He had to represent hours gazing into that reflect. Dave's dad before long joined The Mother, as David called her, in her drinking. He, as well, realized David was a "good boy." He didn't participate in the maltreatment, however he didn't to stop it, either. David was dealt with like a slave in his own home. His mom regarded him as though he wasn’t even an individual from the family like no one worth mentioning or a â€Å"It†. She previously alluded to him as, â€Å"The Boy, at that point it immediately changed to It†. No one at his school enjoyed him, they called him "Pelzer Smelzer" in light of the fact that his mother never washed his garments and made him wear something very similar consistently. After school, o... of the Year. In 1993 Dave was respected as one of the Ten Outstanding Young Americans (TOYA), joining a recognized gathering of graduated class that incorporates Chuck Yeager, Christopher Reeve, Anne Bancroft, John F. Kennedy, Orson Wells and Walt Disney. (Dave Pelzer Biography 2002, Para. 2) In 1994 Dave was the main American to be chosen as one of The Outstanding Young Persons of the World (TOYP), for his endeavors including kid misuse mindfulness and avoidance, just as for imparting strength in others. During the Centennial Olympic games, Dave was a torchbearer, conveying the desired fire (Dave Pelzer Biography 2002, Para. 2) References American Psychological Association. (2001) Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (fifth ed). Washington, DC: McLaughlin & Reinking A Child Called It. (1995). Wellbeing Communications, INC. Deerfield Beach, FL: Dave Pelzer The World of Psychology. (2002). A Pearson Education Company. Boston, MA: Samuel Wood & Ellen Green Wood p. 593 Dave Pelzer Biography. (1997-2002) Book Browse LLC, Davina Morgan-Witts, CEO. San Jose, CA. (para.2). Recovered 04/29/02 from

Friday, August 21, 2020

Albert Einstein, Developer of the Theory of Relativity

Albert Einstein, Developer of the Theory of Relativity Albert Einstein (March 14, 1879â€April 18, 1955), a German-brought into the world hypothetical physicist who lived during the twentieth century, altered logical idea. Having built up the Theory of Relativity, Einstein opened the entryway for the advancement of nuclear force and the making of the nuclear bomb. Einstein is most popular for his 1905 general hypothesis of relativity, Emc2, which places that vitality (E) approaches mass (m) times the speed of light (c) squared. Yet, his impact went a long ways past that hypothesis. Einsteins hypotheses likewise changed considering how the planets rotate around the sun. For his logical commitments, Einstein likewise won the 1921 Nobel Prize in material science. Einstein likewise had to Flee Nazi Germany after the ascent of Adolf Hitler. Its no distortion to state that his hypotheses in a roundabout way helped lead the Allies to triumph over the Axis controls in World War II, especially the annihilation of Japan. Quick Facts: Albert Einstein Known For: The General Theory of Relativity, Emc2, which prompted the improvement of the nuclear bomb and nuclear power.Born: March 14, 1879 in Ulm, Kingdom of Wà ¼rttemberg, German EmpireParents: Hermann Einstein and Pauline KochDied: April 18, 1955 in Princeton, New JerseyEducation: Swiss Federal Polytechnic (1896â€1900, B.A., 1900; University of Zurich, Ph.D., 1905)Published Works: On a Heuristic Point of View Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light, On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, Does an Object’s Inertia Depend on Its Energy Content?Awards and Honors: Barnard Medal (1920), Nobel Prize in Physics (1921), Matteucci Medal (1921), Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1926), Max Planck Medal (1929), Time Person of the Century (1999)Spouses: Mileva Mariä‡ (m. 1903â€1919), Elsa Lã ¶wenthal (m. 1919â€1936)Children: Lieserl, Hans Albert Einstein, EduardNotable Quote: Try and enter with our constrained methods the mysteries of natur e and you will locate that, behind all the detectable links, there remains something unpretentious, impalpable and illogical. Early Life and Education Albert Einstein was conceived on March 14, 1879, in Ulm, Germany to Jewish guardians, Hermann and Pauline Einstein. After a year, Hermann Einsteins business fizzled and he moved his family to Munich to begin another electric business with his sibling Jakob. In Munich, Alberts sister Maja was conceived in 1881. Just two years separated in age, Albert venerated his sister and they had a cozy relationship with one another their entire lives. Despite the fact that Einstein is presently viewed as the embodiment of virtuoso, in the initial two many years of his life, numerous individuals thought Einstein was the specific inverse. Directly after Einstein was conceived, family members were worried about Einsteins pointy head. At that point, when Einstein didnt talk until he was 3 years of age, his folks stressed something wasn't right with him. Einstein additionally neglected to intrigue his educators. From grade school through school, his instructors and educators thought he was languid, messy, and disobedient. A significant number of his instructors figured he could never add up to anything. At the point when Einstein was 15 years of age, his dads new business had fizzled and the Einstein family moved to Italy. From the start, Albert stayed behind in Germany to complete secondary school, however he was soon discontent with that course of action and left school to rejoin his family. Instead of finish secondary school, Einstein chose to apply legitimately to the lofty Polytechnic Institute in Zurich, Switzerland. Despite the fact that he bombed the placement test on the primary attempt, he went through a year learning at a nearby secondary school and retook the selection test in October 1896 and passed. Once at the Polytechnic, Einstein again didn't care for school. Accepting that his teachers just showed old science, Einstein would regularly play hooky, wanting to remain at home and read about the most up to date in logical hypothesis. At the point when he attended class, Einstein would frequently make it evident that he found the class dull. Some very late considering permitted Einstein to graduate in 1900. Be that as it may, once out of school, Einstein couldn't get a new line of work since none of his instructors enjoyed him enough to keep in touch with him a suggestion letter. For about two years, Einstein worked at momentary occupations until a companion had the option to assist him with finding a new line of work as a patent agent at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern. At long last, with an occupation and some soundness, Einstein had the option to wed his school darling, Mileva Maric, whom his folks firmly objected. The couple proceeded to have two children: Hans Albert (brought into the world 1904) and Eduard (brought into the world 1910). Einstein the Patent Clerk For a long time, Einstein worked six days per week as a patent representative. He was answerable for analyzing the plans of different people groups creations and afterward deciding if they were doable. In the event that they were, Einstein needed to guarantee that nobody else had just been given a patent for a similar thought. Some way or another, between his bustling work and family life, Einstein not just discovered time to win a doctorate from the University of Zurich (granted 1905) however discovered time to think. It was while working at the patent office that Einstein made his most powerful disclosures. Compelling Theories In 1905, while working at the patent office, Einstein composed five logical papers, which were completely distributed in the Annalen der Physik (Annals of Physics, a significant material science diary). Three of these were distributed together in September 1905. In one paper, Einstein guessed that light should go in waves as well as existed as particles, which clarified the photoelectric impact. Einstein himself depicted this specific hypothesis as progressive. This was likewise the hypothesis for which Einstein won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921. In another paper, Einstein handled the puzzle of why dust never settled to the base of a glass of water but instead, continued moving (Brownian movement). By pronouncing that the dust was being moved by water particles, Einstein explained a longstanding, logical secret and demonstrated the presence of atoms. His third paper depicted Einsteins Special Theory of Relativity, in which Einstein uncovered that existence are not absolutes. The main thing that is steady, Einstein expressed, is the speed of light; the remainder of reality are totally founded on the situation of the eyewitness. Not exclusively are existence not absolutes, Einstein found that vitality and mass, when thought totally particular things, were really exchangeable. In his Emc2â equation (Eenergy, mmass, and cspeed of light), Einstein made a straightforward equation to portray the connection among vitality and mass. This equation uncovers that an exceptionally modest quantity of mass can be changed over into a tremendous measure of vitality, prompting the later innovation of the nuclear bomb. Einstein was just 26 years of age when these articles were distributed and he had supported science than any person since Sir Isaac Newton. Researchers Take Notice In 1909, four years after his speculations were first distributed, Einstein was at last offered an instructing position. Einstein appreciated being an educator at the University of Zurich. He had discovered customary tutoring as he grew up incredibly restricting and therefore he needed to be an alternate sort of educator. Showing up at school unkempt, with hair uncombed and his garments excessively loose, Einstein before long got referred to as much for his appearance as his instructing style. As Einsteins acclaim inside established researchers developed, offers for new, better positions started to pour in. Inside just a couple of years, Einstein worked at the University of Zurich (Switzerland), at that point the German University in Prague (Czech Republic), and afterward returned to Zurich for the Polytechnic Institute. The successive moves, the various gatherings that Einstein joined in, and distraction of Einstein with science left Mileva (Einsteins spouse) feeling both ignored and forlorn. At the point when Einstein was offered a residency at the University of Berlin in 1913, she didnt need to go. Einstein acknowledged the position in any case. Not long subsequent to showing up in Berlin, Mileva and Albert isolated. Understanding the marriage couldn't be rescued, Mileva returned the children to Zurich. They authoritatively separated in 1919. Accomplishes Worldwide Fame During World War I, Einstein remained in Berlin and worked determinedly on new hypotheses. He worked like a man fixated. With Mileva out of the picture, he regularly neglected to eat and rest. In 1917, the pressure in the end caused significant damage and he crumbled. Determined to have gallstones, Einstein was advised to rest. During his recovery, Einsteins cousin Elsa helped nurture him back to wellbeing. The two turned out to be exceptionally close and when Alberts separate was finished, Albert and Elsa wedded. It was during this time Einstein uncovered his General Theory of Relativity, which thought about the impacts of increasing speed and gravity on reality. On the off chance that Einsteins hypothesis was right, at that point the gravity of the sun would twist light from stars. In 1919, Einsteins General Theory of Relativity could be tried during a sun powered overshadowing. In May 1919, two British space experts (Arthur Eddington and Sir Frances Dyson) had the option to assemble a campaign that watched theâ solar eclipseâ and reported the twisted light. In November 1919, their discoveries were declared openly. In the wake of having endured grand carnage during World War I, individuals around the globe were needing news that went past their countrys fringes. Einstein turned into an overall superstar short-term. It wasnt simply his progressive hypotheses; it was Einsteins general persona that engaged the majority. Einsteins tousled hair, ineffectively fitting garments, doe-like eyes, and clever appeal charmed him to the normal individual. He was a virtuoso, bu

Personal Narrative on Friends :: essays research papers

When you’re youthful, you don’t care about how an individual looks or acts, they’re simply individuals, companions. Growing up, you’ll find that characteristics a companion must have or can’t have gotten significant. It took a unique sort of companion to give me that the genuine heart of an individual is the thing that truly checks. Nearly at seven years old, I made a companion named Dani. I loved being with her since she was continually grinning. We played together and laughed a great deal. Now and then, she’d haphazardly move, turn around, or flee alone, however I never minded or asked why. At some point, there were these more established children pointing and chuckling at her. I skirted up to them. â€Å"Dani’s my friend,† I proclaimed cheerfully. They chuckled much harder. â€Å"Don’t hang with her, child. She’s mental,† the one whose face was the most red cautioned me. â€Å"Huh?† I was astounded. â€Å"Yeah. She’s like-a retard!† once more, they seemed as though hyenas, ignoring their heads as they left leaving me completely befuddled. I didn’t think there was anything amiss with Dani, yet there was a huge piece of me that simply needed to tune in to the large children since they were in every case right. The following day at school, I attempted to stay away from Dani. The cool children said she was a â€Å"retard† and that didn’t sound great. At break, I sat on the ground, desolate. Abruptly, I heard the noisy natural chuckles from yesterday. I looked to one side and saw a similar cool children. I likewise saw Dani, hitting the dance floor with something she took out of the ground. â€Å"Jessica!† her eyes lit up. Different children gazed at me, as though I was some interpreter for two altogether different dialects. Dani stood up and was going to embrace me, however I moved away. â€Å"No, Dani!† I couldn’t trust myself, I was conversing with her as though she were a canine. â€Å"You are a ‘re-tard’,† I still didn’t truly comprehended what that implied, however utilizing the word caused me to feel more established. â€Å"I’m not playing with you anymore.† I attempted to appear as though my mom when she would not get me more sweets. Dani read my face for a second. â€Å"Go away!† I shouted. That did it. Dani cried, and I felt cold tears sliding down my cheeks as well. She hurried away until I couldn’t see her any longer. The enormous children were for all intents and purposes stifling on their salivation, giggling so hard.

Wednesday, July 1, 2020

Gender Construction and Nature in L.M. Montgomery’s Anne of Green Gables - Literature Essay Samples

There is much debate amongst literary critics over L.M. Montgomery’s Anne of Green Gables. The arguments stem from the whether or not it should be defined as a feminist novel and what the narrative really implies about women. L.M. Montgomery disassociated herself from the feminist movement, yet she believed that women should have the right to vote (Montgomery and Cecily, 27). Her seemingly contrasting views and opinions have led to a diverse cacophony of works from both ends of the spectrum. Although there may be subtle hints of pervasive femininity in Anne, older girls are generally the ones who recognize it. Montgomery wrote Anne of Green Gables as a â€Å"girl’s novel,† depicting women as behaving in a prescribed way and embodying certain characteristics. By doing this, Montgomery affirms gender difference but not inequality (Montgomery and Cecily, 26). Anne of Green Gables reveals the early 20th Century assumptions about the role of females in society and, i n doing so, presents the limited number of choices available to them. Anne’s imagination is what makes her special and unique, even though her romantic thoughts and pictures are distinctly feminine (Berg, 127). However, she must learn to repress her imagination as she gets older. If the character of Anne were an adult, readers would have considered her a frivolous scatterbrain (Weiss-Town, 15). By writing her as a child, Montgomery could get away with Anne saying and doing things that would not be appropriate for a proper woman. During Montgomerys time, children were respected, sometimes even envied, because when they grew up they had to behave a certain way. Anne’s imagination is a source of both good and evil in her life. Montgomery describes it as a â€Å"good imagination gone wrong† (Berg, 126). For example, one night Marilla forces Anne to walk through the forest that Anne has named the â€Å"Haunted Woods† to get something from Mrs. Barrie. Anne is terrified on her short journey because of all the ghosts she believes live in the forest. When she returns home to Marilla, she tells her that she’ll be content with â€Å"common place names after this† (Berg, 126). In this episode, Anne learns about the dangers of her imagination and the consequences it can have, scaring herself half to death with her own made-up names and stories. Anne again proves that she has learned to suppress her imagination when her teacher asks her to stop reading a book and she obeys. The book â€Å"was one Ruby Gillis had leant me,† she explains to Marilla, â€Å"and Marilla, it was so fascinating and creepy, it just curdled the blood in my veins. But Miss Stacy said it was a very silly unwholesome book, and she asked me not to read any more of it or any like it† (Berg, 126). In the early 20th Century, Gothic novels was not considered appropriate for girls to read, because people believed that it could greatly alter their gras p of reality. These kinds of books would be considered especially dangerous for girls with vivid imaginations, like Anne. It was mainly girls who read (and still read) Anne of Green Gables, so the novel served as a sort of cautionary tale where they could learn from Anne’s mistakes alongside her (Carol, 10). Although Montgomery portrays Anne as a rambunctious child with a bad temper and a wild imagination, she also embodies many of the stereotypical feminine characteristics of a late 19th Century girl (Weiss-Town, 14). Anne’s sorrows are not caused by her chafing against womanhood, rather, they are the sorrows of womankind; the loss of a loved one, loneliness and not belonging, separation from loved-ones, etc. (Carol, 10). Although there have been critics who say that Anne belongs in a â€Å"boy book†, male protagonists of this time were usually seeking autonomy, separation and freedom from restraint. Anne, however, desperately wants to belong: â€Å"You see,â €  she tells Matthew on their ride to Green Gables from the train station, â€Å"I’ve never had a real home since I can remember. When Anne sees Green Gables for the first time she finally feels a sense of belonging (Berg, 125). Anne is also desperate to find kindred spirits when she comes to Prince Edward Island, and says that she always wanted to have a bosom friend. One of Anne’s main concerns is beauty. She abhors her red hair and freckles, lashing out at anyone who points them out. â€Å"I’d rather be pretty than clever,† Anne admits to Diana (Montgomery and Cecily, 152). After Anne receives a compliment on her nose, she asks Marilla what she thinks of it. Marilla thinks she has quite a lovely nose, but she does not want Anne to be a vain girl, so she does not tell her so. Throughout the novel, Marilla makes it clear that she does not want Anne to be so preoccupied with beauty (Montgomery and Cecily, 151). Although Matthew and Marilla are somber and were brought up in a strict, â€Å"joyless† home, they eventually soften towards Anne, allowing her the freedom to become a â€Å"New Woman.† Marilla places a high value on woman’s education, saying that it is important that â€Å"a girl be fitted to earn her own living whether she has to or not† (Montgomery and Cecily, 31). This presents a contrast to Diana’s mother, who believes that education is wasted on women. While Marilla pushes Anne to succeed academically, Matthew is much better than his sister at expressing his love. He dotes on Anne, buying her fashionable clothes, specifically, a dress with â€Å"puffed sleeves.† Montgomery switches the stereotypical gender roles here, with Marilla as the more masculine head of the household, having the final say on matters and not being as good at expressing her feelings, while Matthew is quiet, submissive, and emotional. Anne brings both Marilla and Matthew out of their comfort zones, thou gh. Later in the novel, Matthew stands up to Marilla more often, mostly for Anne’s sake, and Marilla becomes more lenient as well. Anne’s imagination and outspoken personality serves to amuse others, even when she is tormenting herself. When Anne becomes upset about the prospect of Dianna Barrie getting married one day, Marilla tries to hold her laughter in, but can’t,and she collapses in a chair, laughing at Annes childlike anxiety. Matthew cannot recall when he has ever heard Marilla laughing like that before (Montgomery and Cecily, 162). In another instance, Anne takes Marilla’s hand and â€Å"something warm and pleasant well[s] up in Marilla’s heart at the touch of that thin little hand in her own- a throb of the maternity she [has] missed, perhaps. Its very unaccustomed tenderness and sweetness [scares] her† (Montgomery and Cecily, 126). In this way, Anne is almost setting the people in her life back into their stereotypical gender ro les. Similarly, the adults around her are trying to squeeze Anne into the mold of a young lady by repressing her imagination. When she first comes to Green Gables and is desperate to stay, Anne says â€Å"I’ll try and be anything you want if only you’ll keep me† (Montgomery and Cecily, 97). As the novel goes on, Anne suppresses her imagination more and more in order for her to have a place in society. This social standing is something Anne has to earn, rather than inherit. At the hotel concert, the community applauds Anne for subscribing to society and reciting someone else’s poem, instead of her own. It has been Marilla’s task to modify Anne’s speaking tone, which she does successfully. Before Anne goes off to Queen’s College, Marilla gives her a dress, not one of the plain ones she usually makes, but a beautiful green one. â€Å"Anne put it on one evening for Matthew and Marilla’s benefit, and recited â€Å"The Maidenâ₠¬â„¢s Vow† for them in the kitchen† (Montgomery and Cecily, 304). Anne becomes fashionable, reciting someone else’s words for the benefit of Matthew and Marilla, and is doing so in the kitchen, which is a very domestic place. She has basically become â€Å"the angel in the household.† Marilla remembers what Anne used to be like and it brings tears to her eyes. Marilla says â€Å"I just couldn’t help thinking of the little girl you used to be, Anne. And I was wishing you could have stayed a little girl, even with all your queer ways. You’re grown up now and you’re going away; and you look so tall and stylish and so-so-different altogether in that dress- as if you didn’t belong in Avonlea at all- and I just get lonesome thinking it all over† (Montgomery and Cecily, 304). Anne replies â€Å"I’m not changed- not really. I’m only just pruned down and branched out†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Montgomery and Cecily, 304). The wo rds â€Å"pruned and branched out† sound very artificial. They imply that Anne has learned to repress her real self and stop going wild. Perhaps Marilla realizes this and is a little bit saddened by it. She wishes for the old, younger Anne who had not yet learned how to bow down to the rules of society, although it is Marilla, Rachel Lynde and the other women of the community who put immensely strong pressure on Anne to conform to their own ideals and view of womanhood in a dominantly female community (Weiss-Town, 13). In Avonlea, women’s values are cherished more than men’s values (Berg, 127.) Anne has been taught how to be a good wife and mother ever since she was little, working in homes, looking after children at the age of 11. In fact, she is able to save Minnie May’s life because of this knowledge. Anne does not make any ultimate choices about her life in this book, but in subsequent books Anne’s journey eventually takes her to marriage and motherhood, but not literary fame as she had once hoped. Anne postpones her domestic â€Å"fate† for a while, experiencing life as a â€Å"New Woman.† Anne is a New Woman in many ways; getting a higher education, wearing divided skirts, biking around unchaperoned, etc, but she is still mired in tradition. Although Anne wins a prize for her schoolwork, it is the English prize, a subject traditionally associated with women. Gilbert takes all the other prizes, like those in math and science. After Anne marries, her life becomes rather dull in comparison to the exciting surprises of her childhood. Although Anne actually does receive a good education, especially for a girl, Mary Wollstonecraft believes that because Anne becomes an ideal woman at the end of the book, it means that she actually never stops being a child (Weiss-Town, 12). The lives of women in Anne of Green Gables revolve around breakfast, lunch and dinner, intricate relations between neighbours, mother and sons, mothers and daughters, growing up, raising children, etc. (Carol, 11). All of these elements are very domestic. The chapter titles themselves show the prominence of stereotypical female domestication and religion (Carol, 11). â€Å"Anne Says her Prayers†, â€Å"Anne’s Bringing-up is Begun†, â€Å"Anne’s Impressions of Sunday School†, †A Tempest in the School Teapot†, â€Å"Diana is invited to tea with tragic results†, â€Å"Anne is Invited out to Tea†, â€Å"Miss. Stacy and her Pupils set up a Concert†, â€Å"Matthew Insists on Puffed-sleeves†, â€Å"The Hotel Concert†, etc. (Montgomery and Cecily, 15). Just by looking at the chapter titles, it becomes clear that tea parties and concerts, traditionally feminine pastimes, are a big part of Anne’s life. Marilla tells Anne she can have Diana over for tea while she is at the Aid Society meeting, Anne is overjoyed. She exclaims; â€Å"It wi ll seem so nice and grown-uppish† (Montgomery and Cecily, 163). â€Å"Oh, Marilla, it’s a wonderful sensation just to think of it!† (Montgomery and Cecily, 164). She asks to use toe rosebud spray tea set, but Marilla refuses. Anne’s excitement over a tea party and being â€Å"grown-uppish† show that she is slowly conforming to society; it does not matter whether she inherently likes tea parties or likes them because all other girls her age do. While Marilla at the meeting, Anne’s main responsibility is to get supper for Matthew and Jerry (Montgomery and Cecily, 163). Overall, although Anne does not make any ultimate decisions about her life in this novel, Montgomery still portrays the stereotypical feminine lifestyle that girls in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries were expected to have. Anne starts out as a little, â€Å"ugly†, misbehaved, imaginative orphan girl; but Marilla, Matthew, and the other women of Avonlea transform her into a traditional, model woman. She learns to restrain her imagination, she is â€Å"pruned and branched out,† and is able to save Marilla from having to sell Green Gables, her childhood home. Anne of Green Gables sets up separate worlds for men and women, portraying the woman’s world as much more interesting (Berg, 127). The 1896 Halifax Herald said â€Å"only remarkable and highly motivated women such as [Montgomery] had any business venturing beyond motherhood† (Montgomery and Cecily, 32). This shows the dominant view of the time. Montgomery agreed with the paper, saying women should not have any career other than wife and mother, unless they could accomplish their work without interrupting these responsibilities (Montgomery and Cecily, 26). Although Anne is too young to make any definite decisions by the end of this novel, she lays the foundation for her eventual domestic life. Works Cited:Berg, Temma F. Anne of Green Gables: A Girls Reading. Childrens Lit erature Association Quarterly 13.3 (1988): 124-128. Project MUSE. 17 Aug. 2010 . Carol, Gay. Kindred Spirits All: Green Gables Revisited. Childrens Literature Association Quarterly 11.1 (1986): 9-12. Project MUSE. 17 Aug. 2010 .Montgomery, Lucy, and Cecily, Margaret. Anne of Green Gables. Peterborough, Ontario, Canada: Broadview Press, 2004. Print. (This source is not just the book itself; it has all kinds of interesting articles in it†¦Ã¯ Å )Weiss-Town, Janet. Sexism Down on the Farm? Anne of Green Gables. Childrens Literature Association Quarterly 11.1 (1986): 12-15. Project MUSE. 17 Aug. 2010 .Total Word Count: 2275

Thursday, June 25, 2020

Critically Assess The Effects Of Corporate Separate Personality - Free Essay Example

Critically assess the effects of corporate separate personality. The fundamental concept of corporate separate personality recognises that a company, once incorporated, becomes a ‘body corporate, i.e. a legal entity distinct from its members and officers. The various effects of corporate separate personality shall be dealt with in turn. 1) Distinct legal identity from its members One of the most significant effects of corporate separate personality is that the company assumes a separate identity from that of its members. Even if a company is owned outright by one shareholder, the company has a completely separate personality from that individual. This is confirmed by the leading case of Salomon v A. Salomon Co Ltd in which the House of Lords held that the companys acts were its own acts, not those of Mr Salomon personally. As a result, Mr Salomon was not personally liable for his companys debts. It is worth noting, however, that the Court did recognise that there would be situations in which they would be prepared to move away from that principle and ‘lift the veil of incorporation and find individuals liable where they had acted dishonestly, fraudulently or unreasonably. 2) Limited liability Due to the fact that the company is a separate legal individual, it follows that its members will not generally be liable for its debts and obligations. This gives the shareholders a great level of security, since it means that they are able to profit from the successes of the company whilst being safe in the knowledge that their personal liability is limited to the value of the shares they have purchased. However it should be noted that those members who participate in the management of the company will not necessarily be protected from personal liability. In addition, the concept of limited liability may not be attractive to potential creditors who may require additional security for their loan. 3) Ownership of Property Where a company holds property in its own name, this belongs solely the company and the shareholders have no proprietary rights (other than for the value of the shares they hold). This gives shareholders and employees more security than if a director chose to leave his position and was able to enforce a sale and division of any company property or assets he owned. This position therefore makes the shareholders investments more attractive and secure. However, this may be to the detriment of a trader who owned the company property before incorporation but failed to subsequently assign the insurance policies to the company. This was illustrated in Macaura v Northern Assurance Co wherein Mr Macaura had insured timber under his own name and this was then destroyed by a fire. The insurance company refused to pay out on Mr Macauras claim, stating that he had no insurable interest in the timber as it was owned by the company. In the same way, a parent company does not have an insurab le interest in its subsidiary companies, even where they are wholly owned by it. 3) Transferable shares and transparency The fact that a company is legally separate from its members facilitates the transfer of shares. The issue of shares is regarded as a fundamental means of raising capital for the company (although smaller traders are often attracted by the concept of incorporation merely as a means to protect themselves from potential unlimited liability). The exchange of shares on the open market also leads to transparency since it acts as an incentive for management to conduct the business in a reasonable manner. This transparency enables greater scrutiny by outsiders of the companys affairs and reduces the opportunity for fraudulent behaviour, thereby improving the marketability of the shares. It also means that investors are able to obtain the requisite information they need in order to evaluate the company before entering into business transactions. From the companys point of view, however, this transparency can often lead to disclosure of information that they would have preferred to wi thhold and put them in a more vulnerable position with competitors. 4) Ability to sue and liability to be sued The main benefit to traders of incorporation is the concept of limited liability; however, this can act to the detriment of third party creditors who enter into transactions with the company. Whilst the creditors will be able to sue the company itself, they may not be able to recover their money if the company is insolvent. It should be noted also that a company is able to sue its debtors for non-payment. So it is a legal individual that can both sue and be sued. 5) Perpetual succession After being legally created by incorporation, a company can only subsequently be terminated by the law. Unlike people, companies are immortal and will continue to exist after the exit or death of its members by the process of perpetual succession. Obviously a reduction in the number of members (particularly if they owned a substantial shareholding) may affect the company in terms of morale, profit levels, functioning, etc, but the actual company itself will remain in existence. The only manner in which a member is able to realise the value of his shares upon leaving the company is by selling them to another individual – there is no entitlement to be bought out by the firm. Regardless of whether an individuals shares are sold (or, if he died, then left to another in his will), this will not affect the company itself. Shareholders of the company are merely agents of the company; they can come and go without affecting the companys existence. Therefore, it is easier and po tentially less damaging to remove a fraudulent or disreputable director from a company than a partnership (where that individual would be able to jeopardise the business by taking with him any assets or capital that he owned). There is also greater security for employees since they will not be at risk of losing their jobs due to the death of their employer, as the company will continue to exist. The benefits of incorporation to a sole trader or small partnership are obvious. The company will have greater access to capital, thereby increasing the businesss chances of prosperity. In conclusion, the effects of corporate separate personality are far-reaching. A company is regarded as a legal entity in its own right and, as such, its members have limited liability for its debts and obligations. The company is able to own property in its own name and issue shares to raise capital. It is able to sue debtors and similarly be sued by its creditors. Finally, a fundamental characte ristic of corporate separate personality is that of perpetual succession, which results in a continuation of the companys existence regardless of its members. BIBLIOGRAPHY Birds, J. Boyle, A. – â€Å"Boyle and Birds Company Law†; Jordans Ltd; 6th Revised Edition; (2007) Davies, P. L. â€Å"Principles of Modern Company Law†; Sweet and Maxwell; 7th Edition; (2003) Digman, A. Lowry, J. – â€Å"Company Law†; Oxford University Press; 4th Edition; (2006) Keenan, D Bisacre, J.- â€Å"Smith Keenans Company Law†; Longman; 13th Edition; (2005)

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

All About the Dugong

Dugongs join manatees in the order Sirenia, the group of animals that, some say, inspired tales of mermaids. With their grayish-brown skin and whiskered face, dugongs resemble manatees, but are found on the other side of the world. Description Dugongs grow to lengths of 8 to 10 feet and weights of up to 1,100 pounds. Dugongs are gray or brown in coloration and have a whale-like tail with two flukes. They have a rounded, whiskered snout and two forelimbs. Classification Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: MammaliaOrder: SireniaFamily: DugongidaeGenus: DugongSpecies: dugon Habitat and Distribution Dugongs live in warm, coastal waters from East Africa to Australia. Feeding Dugongs are primarily herbivores, eating seagrasses and algae. Crabs have also been found in the stomachs of some dugongs. Dugongs have tough pads on their lower lip to help them grab vegetation, and 10 to 14 teeth. Reproduction The dugongs breeding season occurs throughout the year, although dugongs will delay breeding if they do not get enough to eat. Once a female becomes pregnant, her gestation period is about 1 year. After that time, she usually gives birth to one calf, which is 3 to 4 feet long. Calves nurse for about 18 months. The lifespan of the dugong is estimated at 70 years. Conservation The dugong is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. They are hunted for their meat, oil, skin, bones, and teeth. They are also threatened by entanglement in fishing gear and coastal pollution. Dugong population sizes are not well known. Since dugongs are long-lived animals with a low reproduction rate, according to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), even a slight reduction in adult survivorship as a result of habitat loss, disease, hunting or incidental drowning in nets, can result in a chronic decline. Sources Fox, D. 1999. Dugong dugon (On-line). Animal Diversity Web. Accessed November 10, 2009.Marsh, H. 2002. Dugong: Status Reports and Action Plans for Countries and Territories. (Online). United Nations Environment Programme. Accessed November 10, 2009.Marsh, H. 2008. Dugong dugon. (Online). IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. Accessed November 10, 2009.